Citric acid protects against toluene-induced brain neurodegeneration and liver damage in rats

  • Omar ME Abdel-Salam Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • Amany A Sleem Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • Fatma A Morsy Department of Pathology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
Keywords: Toluene, citric acid, neurodegeneration, liver injury, oxidative stress

Abstract

Volatile solvent abuse is an important global health problem with serious consequences on the central nervous system. In this study, the effect of citric acid on brain oxidative stress and histopathological changes in brain and liver following exposure to toluene in rats was investigated. Rats were treated with toluene (900 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, daily) either alone or together with citric acid at 200, 400, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg for successive two days. Oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide were determined. Histopathology of the brain and liver was done. Results showed that compared with the vehicle exposure to toluene caused increased brain MDA and NO along with decreased GSH content. Histopathological examination of the brain of toluene only-treated rats showed vacuolar degeneration, pyknotic and necrotic material in cerebral cortex and degeneration in the most of Purkinje cells in cerebellum. The liver exhibited distorted architecture, massive hepatocyte degeneration, and red blood cells in sinusoidal spaces. Citric acid given at 1 or 2 g/kg improved the pathological changes in cerebral cortex with most neurons being of normal shape after 2 g/kg citric acid. In cerebellum, few Purkinje cells appeared normal after citric acid administration. In the liver, citric acid at 1 or 2 g/kg almost prevented the deleterious effects induced by toluene. Collectively, these results indicate that treatment with citric acid at 1 or 2 g/kg was able to decrease neuronal damage in cerebral cortex and prevent liver damage in rats exposed to toluene.

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Published
2020-12-25
How to Cite
Abdel-Salam, O. M., Sleem, A. A., & Morsy, F. A. (2020). Citric acid protects against toluene-induced brain neurodegeneration and liver damage in rats. Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(2), 38-48. Retrieved from https://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/72
Section
Original Research Articles