Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology <h2 class=".pkp_structure_main page_index_journal description">Aim and Scope:</h2> <p class=".pkp_structure_main page_index_journal description" style="display: inline;">The <strong>Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology [JBPT]</strong> is a biannual peer-reviewed open access journal (previously published quarterly in 2017), publishes peer-reviewed original research and review articles in the areas of basic pharmacological and toxicological evaluations of natural crude extracts, isolated compounds and synthetic drugs <em>in vivo</em>, <em>in vitro</em>, <em>ex vivo</em> and <em>in silico</em>. The pharmacological evaluations include but not limited to basic pharmacological experiments such as antioxidant activity, antiulcer activity, antidiabetic activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antinociceptive activity. The toxicological evaluations include acute and chronic toxicity evaluations including histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. The journal welcomes human and animal studies. The journal aims to promote excellence in the research on biological assessment of natural products and synthetic compounds towards integrated healthcare in disease prevention and management. The journal has a very experienced and distinguished researchers in the editorial board. All articles undergo plagiarism check and peer review process and only good quality articles are accepted for publication.</p> SciGreen Publications en-US Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology 0000-0000 <p>© The Authors. Published by SciGreen Publications. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (<a href=""></a>).</p> Resistant urinary tract infection during post antibiotic era - Is it time for revival of phage therapy? <p>Treatment of antibiotic resistant uropathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> (UPEC) infection is currently a major challenge in the field of antimicrobial therapeutics. In addition, the evolution of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and bio-film producing UPEC pose further hurdles in treating recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) due to UPEC. The last decade witnessed emergence of various alternative treatment measures to tide over this crisis, including non-antibiotic agents and vaccines. However, in terms of efficacy, none of these agents fulfil our needs adequately. It appears that we are slowly and surely entering into the post-antibiotic era. This has prompted researchers to turn their attention to re-discover bacteriophage therapy as an alternative for treatment of resistant uropathogens. Phage Bacteriophages (phages) are tiny viruses, which are highly specific to their biological hosts and have been known to the researchers for more than two decades. Despite its demonstrated utility long ago, phage therapy was not in the lime light due to various reasons. These tiny members of the extensive microbiome in the human body are now being reconsidered as alternatives to antibiotics in resistant situations. The phages possess the potential of being used as natural phages (or as cocktail), genetically engineered phages, phage lytic enzymes or phage antibiotic synergy. In this paper, we attempt to review the current status of phage therapy in UPEC and assess whether it is time to incorporate it into treatment practices during this post antibiotic era with widespread chemical therapeutic resistance.</p> Krishna Moorthy Hariharan Laxman Prabhu GG Venugopal P Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Moorthy Hariharan, Laxman Prabhu GG, Venugopal P 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 5 2 1 6 The spectrum and enzymatic activities of Candida isolates recovered from HIV/AIDS patients in Southeastern Nigeria <p><em>Candida</em> is one of the most common opportunistic fungi in HIV/AIDS infection. Successful identification of <em>Candida</em> species is important in the treatment and management of all forms of candidiasis.&nbsp; In most parts of Nigeria, especially in the South East axis, the species spectrum of <em>Candida</em> yeast colonization in HIV/AIDS is poorly understood. This study was set up to determine the prevalence of oral and blood <em>Candida</em> isolates from HIV/AIDS patients in Nigeria. A total of 200 samples comprising of 100 oral swabs and 100 blood samples from HIV/AIDS patients attending Enugu-Ezike district hospital, were analyzed using conventional techniques to identify the presence of <em>Candida </em>species. Also, in vitro phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of the isolates were also carried out. Out of the 200 samples screened, <em>Candida</em> species was recovered in 48 (24%) samples. Species recovered included <em>C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondii, C. krusei </em>and<em> C. glabrata</em>. Forty-six isolates were recovered from the oral route while 11 isolates were obtained from the blood, giving a total of 57 isolates. <em>C. albicans</em> was the most frequently isolated species from the oral cavity 23 (50%), followed by <em>C</em>. <em>parapsilosis</em> 10 (21.7%). The highest incidence of candidiasis among the HIV/AIDS subjects was observed in those aged 21-40 yrs. Phospholipase activity was found in 29 (63%) of the oral isolates while 31 (67.4%) had proteinase activity. Haemolysin activity was observed in 33 (71.7%) isolates. <em>C</em>. <em>krusei</em> and <em>C. guillermondii </em>isolates did not show any haemolysin activity. Among the blood isolates, 6 (54.4%) had phospholipase activity, while 7 (72.7%) had proteinase activity. Haemolysin activity was observed in 7 (72.7%) isolates. Non- <em>albicans</em> <em>Candida</em> species are emerging as potential cause of invasive infection and thus posing a therapeutic challenge in the area investigated.</p> Chinedu Stanley Alisigwe Emeka Innocent Nweze Copyright (c) 2021 Chinedu Stanley Alisigwe , Emeka Innocent Nweze 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 5 2 7 13 Antibacterial activity of Cyperus esculentus (Tiger nut) and Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) against multiresistant bacteria isolates <p>The increase in antimicrobial resistance has become a great threat in the treatment of common infections. Antimicrobial resistance has direct and severe consequences on both morbidity and mortality rates of humans and animals: healing process is delayed; surgical operations and other medical procedures are endangered due to microbial infections and treatment costs increase. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> and <em>Cucumis sativus </em>were investigated against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Listeria ivanovii, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em>. The results revealed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>Cucumis sativus</em> contain more bioactive components than ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>Cyperus esculentus</em>. The phytochemical analysis of the <em>Cucumis sativus</em> extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and steroids, while <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> showed the presence of alkaloids, resins, saponins, tannins and steroids. The aqueous extract of <em>Cucumis sativus</em> pulp had a high antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (IZD = 27 ± 0.27 mm) and <em>Bacillus cereus </em>(IZD = 26.5 ± 0.41 mm) at the 50 mg/ml concentration. Also, the ethanolic extract of <em>Cucumis sativus</em> pulp showed good activity at the same concentration against <em>Bacillus cereus</em> (IZD 18.5 ± 0.49 mm) and <em>Serratia marcescens</em> (IZD 16 ± 0.00 mm). In contrast, both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>C. sativus</em> and <em>C. esculentus</em> peels only showed very negligible activities against the test bacterial isolates. Also, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>C. sativus </em>pulp was lower (1.53 mg/ml) against <em>Bacilius cereus</em> and <em>Listeria ivanovii</em> than other bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts was only observed against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (6.13 mg/ml) and <em>Listeria ivanovii </em>(3.06 mg/ml). These findings revealed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>Cucumis sativus </em>pulp may have potential applications in the phytomedicine for treating human infections.</p> Somtochukwu Agbo Cecilia Ekene Chidebelu Paul Emeka Innocent Nweze Copyright (c) 2021 Somtochukwu Agbo Cecilia, Ekene Chidebelu Paul, Emeka Innocent Nweze 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 5 2 14 19 Separation and structural description of aloin and microdontin from leaf of Aloe yavellana reynolds <p>Employment of succulent leaf of <em>Aloe yavellana </em>(Rey.), a ubiquitous plant species restricted to Sidamo floristic region, of Ethiopia, through preparative thin layer chromatography and using spectroscopic techniques led to the separation of two core tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (anthrones) compounds known as aloin (<strong>1</strong>), a light yellow powder; <em>R<sub>f</sub></em> = 0.351 (chloroform/methanol: 4:1); UV λ<sub>max</sub> (methanol): 357, 299, 208 nm; IR ν<sub>cm</sub><sup>‑1</sup>: 1085, 1291, 1618, 1631, 3400; ESIMS (-ve mode) with mass-to-charge ratio: 417 [M‑H]<sup>−</sup>, representing molecular formula C<sub>21</sub>H<sub>22</sub>O<sub>9</sub> and molecular mass: 418 mu; and microdontin (<strong>2</strong>), a light yellow powder; <em>R<sub>f</sub></em> = 0.582 (chloroform/methanol 4:1); UV λ<sub>max </sub>(methanol): 311, 302, nm; IR ν<sub>cm</sub><sup>‑1</sup>: 1453, 1603, 1168, 1297, 1709, 3415; ESIMS (-ve mode)) with mass-to-charge ratio: 563 [M ‑ H]<sup>−</sup>, representing molecular formula C<sub>30</sub>H<sub>28</sub>O<sub>11</sub> and&nbsp; molecular mass: 564 mu.</p> Tibebu Hailesillassie Copyright (c) 2021 Tibebu Hailesillassie 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 5 2 20 22