Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT <p>The Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology is a biannual peer-reviewed open access journal (previously published quarterly in 2017), publishes peer-reviewed original research and review articles in the areas of basic pharmacological and toxicological&nbsp;evaluations of natural crude extracts, isolated compounds and synthetic drugs <em>in vivo</em>, <em>in vitro</em>, <em>ex vivo</em> and <em>in silico</em>. The pharmacological evaluations include but not limited to basic pharmacological experiments such as antioxidant activity, antiulcer activity, antidiabetic activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antinociceptive activity. The toxicological evaluations include acute and chronic toxicity evaluations including histopathological&nbsp;and immunohistochemical studies. The journal welcomes human and animal studies.</p> en-US <p>© 2017 The Authors. Published by SciGreen Publications. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/</a>).</p> manager-jbpt@scigreen.com (Dr. Mohamed Saleem, PhD) manager-jbpt@scigreen.com (Dr. Mohamed Saleem, PhD) Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Psychopharmacological study on ethanol root extract of Panicum maximum http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/48 <p><em>Panicum maximum</em> is used in Ibibio ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as CNS disorders. The ethanol root extract of <em>Panicum maximum</em> (137 - 547 mg/kg) was investigated for antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice using open field and&nbsp; forced swimming tests for depression models and aminophylline and pentylene tetrazol-induced convulsion for anticonvulsant activity evaluation. The extract was found to significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05 - 0.01) increase the frequency of line crossing, rearing and walling activities of mice in open field test. The extract also significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05 - 0.001) increased the duration of immobility of mice in forced swimming test. The root extract also protected the mice significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) against aminophylline and PTZ-induced convulsions. The root extract of <em>P. maximum</em> has depressant and anticonvulsant activities and this supports its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders.</p> Jude Efiom Okokon, Anwanga E Udoh, John A Udobang, Koofreh O Davies, Emmanuel E Nyong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/48 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 Anticonvulsant activity of corn silk (Stigma maydis) http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/49 <p>Corn silk of <em>Zea mays </em>L. (<em>Stigma maydis</em>) (Family: Poaceae) is used in Ibibio ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as CNS disorders. The ethanol corn silk extract of <em>Z. mays </em>(170 - 510 mg/kg) was investigated for anticonvulsant activity in mice using pentylene tetrazol and aminophylline-induced convulsion models to assess anticonvulsant activity. The extract was found to significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.005 -0.01) offer protection against PTZ- and aminophylline-induced convulsions in mice. The corn silk extract of <em>Z. mays</em> possesses anticonvulsant activity and this supports its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders.</p> Jude Efiom Okokon, Koofreh Davies, Emmanuel E Nyong, Anwangabasi E Udoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/49 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 Neuropharmacological evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of Zea mays http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/51 <p>The ethanol leaf extract of <em>Zea mays</em> (170 - 510 mg/kg) was investigated for effect on the central nervous system (CNS) using open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests using mice. The extract was found to significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05-0.01) increase the frequency of line crossing, rearing and walling activities of mice in open field test. The extract also decreased significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05-0.001) the duration of immobility time of mice in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The results of this study show that the leaf extract of <em>Z. mays</em> has CNS stimulatory activity and this justify its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders.</p> Jude Efiom Okokon, Anwangabasi E Udoh, Jackson Obot, Louis U Amazu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/51 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum fruit) on paracetamol-induced liver injury in albino rats http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/47 <p>This study was done to determine the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em> in paracetamol-induced liver injury in albino rats. Level of liver marker enzymes such as AST, ALT and ALP and level of some biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea and creatinine were assayed in rats fed with aqueous extract of <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em>. Acute toxicity study (LD<sub>50</sub>) was first evaluated in rats before the commencement of the main study. Silymarin at a dose of 50mg/kg was used as positive control. The aqueous extract of <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em> was administered to animals daily by intubation for seven days at 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg. All treatments were carried out for 7 days and paracetamol intoxication was done 3 hours after the last dose. All animals were euthanized 24 hours after the last treatment, blood was collected and used for estimation of biochemical parameters such as liver enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of serum albumin, creatinine and urea. The results indicated that there was no significant difference (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05) in levels of ALP in all the groups in comparison to the control group. Both urea and creatinine levels were increased significantly by paracetamol intoxication but both were decreased significantly by the administration of aqueous extract of <em>H. thebaica.</em></p> Madu Adamu Gadaka, Grema Goni Kaka, B B Shehu, Miriam Watafua ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/47 Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) leaf against some clinical isolates http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/52 <p>Medicinal and aromatic plants form a numerically large group of economically important plants which provide basic raw materials for medicines, perfumes, flavours and cosmetics in Nigeria. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of scent leaves (<em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>) extracts on four pathogenic microorganisms using the agar well diffusion method. These bacteria include; <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa,</em> <em>Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Two different extracts were obtained from the plant samples (water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts). Both extracts showed the presence of some important phytochemicals, however screening of the ethanolic extracts showed that it contained high levels of saponin, tannins, phenolics, steroids and glycosides when compared with the aqueous extract. There were zones of inhibitions observed around the wells of both water and ethanol extract of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>. The results showed that the isolates behaved differently in their sensitivity to different extracts added to their growth medium ranging between 3 ± 0.01 – 35 ± 0.02 mm for ethanolic extract and 6 ± 0.02 – 45 ± 0.12 mm for the aqueous extract with significance (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Ethanol extract was strongly effective against the four clinical pathogens. The MIC, MBC and MFC test showed that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of the plants are bactericidal and fungicidal but their fungicidal activities are lower when compared with their bactericidal activities. This investigation indicates that <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> had antimicrobial effect thus confirming its use in traditional medicine.</p> Ayomide Emmanuel Fadiji, Omomowo I O, Omomowo O I, Lanrewaju A A, Akande D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/52 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800