Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology 2017-09-02T14:50:19+00:00 Dr. Mohamed Saleem, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access journal, publishes peer-reviewed original research and review articles in the areas of basic pharmacological and toxicological&nbsp;evaluations of natural crude extracts, isolated compounds and synthetic drugs <em>in vivo</em>, <em>in vitro</em>, <em>ex vivo</em> and <em>in silico</em>. The pharmacological evaluations include but not limited to basic pharmacological experiments such as antioxidant activity, antiulcer activity, antidiabetic activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antinociceptive activity. The toxicological evaluations include acute and chronic toxicity evaluations including histopathological&nbsp;and immunohistochemical studies. The journal welcomes human and animal studies.</p> Nephroprotective activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats 2017-08-02T14:40:47+00:00 Jude Efiom Okokon Mandu Emmanuel Nyong Grace Emmanuel Essien Emmanuel Nyong <p><em>Zea mays</em> L. (Poacae), an annual grass, traditionally used to treat various diseases was evaluated for antioxidative stress and renoprotective potentials against alloxan-induced injuries in diabetic rats. Antioxidative stress and renoprotective activities of husk extract and fractions (187-748 mg/kg) were assessed by determining levels of oxidative stress markers, kidney function tests and histopathology of kidney. Hematological parameters were determined using hematology Analyser. The husk extract and fractions caused significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) increases in the levels of oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH) in the kidney and MDA level was decreased in the treated diabetic rats. The extract and fractions caused significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) reduction of elevated serum levels of creatinine, urea and chloride in the diabetic rats. The extract/fractions caused increases in WBC, PCV, monocyte, neutrophil, platelet and eosinophil counts without affecting other parameters. Histology of kidney revealed absence or significant reductions in pathological features in the treated diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction revealed the presence of phytochemical compounds of pharmacological importance. The results showed that the husk extract and fractions of <em>Zea mays</em> has antioxidative and nephroprotective potentials which may be due to the antioxidant activities of their phytochemical constituents.</p> 2017-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Abrus precatorius against urinary tract pathogens and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetables 2017-08-02T14:38:31+00:00 Eze H Emeka I Nweze <p>Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat infectious diseases since the origin of mankind. The increase in multidrug resistant organisms associated with conventional agents has ignited a lot of interest in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of <em>Abrus precatorius</em> leaf against ten clinical microbial isolates mostly (except <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> isolated from leafy vegetable) recovered from urinary tract infected patients. The broth micro-dilution technique was used for the assay. The ethanolic extract was inhibitory to <em>K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes</em> and <em>P. mirabillis</em> with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (mg/ml) values of 23.4 ±7.8 to 46.9 ± 15.6, 31.3 ± 0.0 to 46.9 ± 15.6, 23.4 ± 7.8 to 156.3 ± 93.8, 23.4 ± 7.8 to 250.0 ± 0.0, 140.6 ± 109.4 and 46.9 ± 15.6 respectively. The aqueous extract was also inhibitory to <em>K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes</em> and <em>P. mirabillis</em> at MICs (mg/ml) of 15.6 ± 9.4, 15.6 ± 9.4, 7.8 ± 4.7 to 9.4 ± 3.1, 4.7 ± 1.6 - 4.7 ± 1.6, 37.5 ± 12.5 and 9.4 ± 3.1 respectively. While ethanolic extract was bactericidal to <em>S. aureus </em>STAPH<sub>2</sub>, <em>L. </em><em>monocytogenes </em>and <em>P. mirabillis</em>, the aqueous extract was only bactericidal to <em>P. aeruginosa </em>PSDO<sub>I </sub>and <em>S .aureus </em>STAPH<sub>I</sub>. Ofloxacin and gentamycin used as positive controls were effective against all isolates tested at microgram concentrations. The present <em>in vitro</em> study scientifically authenticates the traditional use of extracts of <em>Abrus precatorius </em>leaf for treatment of some bacterial infections in our region.</p> 2017-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aflatoxins composition of maize (Zea mays L.), guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor L.) cold paps and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) butter in Nsukka, Nigeria 2017-08-11T14:55:54+00:00 Christopher C Onyeke Ejikeme J Obasi Godswill C Ajuziogu Uwakwe S Onoja Dandy A Osibe Emeka I Nweze Ogbonnaya E Ikwuagwu Joseph E Eyo <p>Contamination of foodstuffs by aflatoxins is a serious threat to food safety and security in most parts of the world and there is need to sensitize consumers on the aflatoxin contents of the foods they consume. This study was carried out to ascertain levels of aflatoxin contamination in some locally prepared and marketed cold paps of maize and guinea corn as well as peanut butter in Nsukka, Nigeria. Aflatoxins in the samples bought from three different markets in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria were analyzed in triplicates using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> and B<sub>2</sub> were detected in all the food samples with their concentrations ranging from 1.48 ± 0.24 to 2.31 ± 0.64 µg/kg and 1.42 ± 0.17 to 2.17 ± 0.83 µg/kg respectively. Aflatoxins B<sub>1 </sub>and B<sub>2</sub> concentrations were statistically different (<em>p</em> ≤ 0.05) in all sampled food products. Aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> differed significantly (<em>p</em> ≤ 0.05) among locations. The total aflatoxin contents of sampled foods ranged from 8.9 ± 0.9 to 49.1 ± 9.0 µg/kg and differed significantly (<em>p</em> ≤ 0.05) among samples and locations. Unsafe levels of mainly the total aflatoxins were associated with cereal cold paps and peanut butter sold in the study area. Though concentrations of aflatoxins (B<sub>1 </sub>and B<sub>2</sub>) in these foods were within recommended tolerable limits, that of total aflatoxin contents were above the tolerable limits (mostly in peanut butter) and are potential threats to consumers.</p> 2017-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antihepatotoxic effects of Garcinia kola Heckel on ethanol-induced liver dysfunction 2017-09-02T14:50:19+00:00 Eze Chukwuka W Emeka I Nweze Ikekpeazu Ebere <p>The antihepatotoxic effects of <em>Garcinia kola</em> on ethanol-induced liver dysfunction was investigated in albino rats. The rats were categorized into three groups: group 1 received 10% (w/w) <em>Garcinia kola</em> supplemented feed, drinking water mixed with 15% ethanol. Group II received feed without <em>Garcinia kola</em> and drinking water mixed with 15% ethanol. Group III served as control and were fed on normal feed and clean drinking water. All the animals were fed for two weeks and later sacrificed. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined by standard laboratory methods. The results showed that <em>Garcinia kola</em> supplemented feed significantly lowered the AST and ALT activities when compared to the control group animals (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), thus indicating the amelioration of the hepatotoxic effects of ethanol by <em>Garcinia kola</em>.</p> 2017-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##