Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018-11-12T10:55:26+00:00 Dr. Mohamed Saleem, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology is a biannual peer-reviewed open access journal (previously published quarterly in 2017), publishes peer-reviewed original research and review articles in the areas of basic pharmacological and toxicological&nbsp;evaluations of natural crude extracts, isolated compounds and synthetic drugs <em>in vivo</em>, <em>in vitro</em>, <em>ex vivo</em> and <em>in silico</em>. The pharmacological evaluations include but not limited to basic pharmacological experiments such as antioxidant activity, antiulcer activity, antidiabetic activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antinociceptive activity. The toxicological evaluations include acute and chronic toxicity evaluations including histopathological&nbsp;and immunohistochemical studies. The journal welcomes human and animal studies.</p> Synthesis and biological evaluation of sulphonyl derivatives of naturally occurring chromone alkaloid of rohitukine as anticancer agents 2018-05-19T07:53:54+00:00 Sunil K Mishra Pallavi Srivastava S K Rath A A Mahdi S K Agarwal Vijai Lakshmi <p>The present study deals with isolation of active constituent, rohitukine from the stem bark of <em>Dysoxylum binectariferum</em>, and synthesis of a series of its new sulphonyl derivatives aiming to enhance its therapeutic efficacy. Rohitukine has been isolated with more than 95% purity and ten new semisynthetic analogs have been prepared using different sulphonyl chlorides. These derivatives were evaluated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 (ER +ve) and MDA-MB-231 (ER -ve) breast cancer cell lines. Compounds K6, K8 and K10 showed significant activity against breast cancer cell lines at a concentration of 17.5 µM, 17 µM and 19 µM in MCF-7 and 20 µM, 9.8 µM and 28.5 µM in MDA-MB-231 respectively. These compounds induced significant apoptosis in MCF-cell line. Further work may enhance the anticancer activity.</p> 2018-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial and synergistic potency of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Vernonia amygdalina L. 2018-05-19T07:53:54+00:00 Sylvester Chibueze Izah E.J. Uhunmwangho Nsikak Godwin Etim <p><em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>and <em>Ocimum gratissimum </em>are common perennial shrubs that are used as vegetables and spices. Studies have indicated that both plants have several medicinal properties. This study investigated the antibacterial and synergistic potency of methanolic leaf extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>. The leaf samples were shade dried, extracted using methanol and tested against some bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method. The mean zone of inhibition against <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and<em> Bacillus </em>sp. was 13.67 mm, 13.33 mm and 13.00 mm, respectively by <em>V. amygdalina</em>, 13.00 mm, 12.67 mm and 13.00 mm, respectively by <em>O. gratissimum, </em>and 15.00 mm, 13.67 mm, 13.33 mm, respectively for synergy of <em>V. amygdalina </em>and <em>O. gratissimum </em>at 100% concentration. There was no significant variation (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05) among the various isolates, and plants and its combinations at 100% and 85% concentrations, but significant difference (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) exists at 95% and 90% extracts. The findings showed that the combination had slight superior potency against the tested isolates.</p> 2018-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial and synergistic efficacy of acetone extracts of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) and Buchholzia coriacea (Wonderful kola) 2018-05-19T07:58:01+00:00 Lovet T Kigigha Remita E Selekere Sylvester Chibueze Izah <p>This study investigated the antibacterial and synergistic efficacy of acetone extracts of seed of <em>Buchholzia coriacea </em>(wonderful kola) and <em>Garcinia kola </em>(bitter kola). Extraction was carried out using acetone, and Agar well diffusion sensitivity testing method was adopted. Results showed that the highest zone of inhibition was achieved when both kola was mixed at ratio of 1:1. The zone of inhibition of synergy extract of <em>Garcinia kola </em>nut and <em>Buchholzia coriacea </em>seed for <em>E. coli, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus </em>sp were 14.00 mm, 12.33 mm, 13.0 mm and 12.00 mm respectively. Furthermore, individual zones of inhibition for <em>E. coli, Pseudomonas </em>sp.<em>, Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus </em>sp. were 11.33 mm, 9.67 mm, 13.67 mm and 11.00 mm respectively for <em>Buchholzia coriacea</em> and 13.00 mm, 11.00 mm, 13.0 mm and 12.67 mm respectively for <em>Garcinia kola.</em> Analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05) among the different isolate for the different extracts except for that of <em>Buchholzia coriacea. </em>This study showed that synergistic efficacy of bitter kola and wonderful kola produced superior antimicrobial effects. Again, the positive result for both gram negative bacteria (<em>E. coli, Pseudomonas </em>sp.) and gram positive bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus </em>sp.) suggest that they could be used as broad spectrum antibiotics.</p> 2018-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of the hydroethanolic extract of Clerodendrum volubile leaf 2018-11-12T10:44:47+00:00 Olufemi Olatokunboh Amole A A Akinyede K T Alo <p>The leaf of <em>Clerodendrum volubile</em> is used in the Traditional African Medicine (TAM) in the treatment of various diseases including painful and inflammatory conditions. This study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of <em>Clerodendrum volubile</em> (HeCV) in rodents. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the formalin, capsaicin and acetic acid-induced writhing assays in mice, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation tests in rats were used to investigate the antiinflammatory action. In the second phase of formalin induced nociception, the greatest effect (79.84% inhibition) was produced at the lowest dose of 100 mg/kg and had significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) inhibition of nociception reaction. The effect was less and comparable to diclofenac 50 mg/kg (79.51%) but not significantly different (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) from that of the effective dose of HeCV at 400 mg/kg. In respect of antiinflammatory activity, <em>Clerodendrum volubile</em> caused no significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), but dose-dependent inhibition of edema development in carrageenan-induced inflammation and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rat. Pretreatment of mice with sulpiride prevented HeCV induced antinociceptiion in mice writhing test. Findings from this work indicates that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of <em>Clerodendrum volubile</em> possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities possibly mediated <em>via</em> peripheral and central mechanisms involving the activation of dopaminergic receptor. This justifies the use of the plant extract in TAM for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions.</p> 2018-10-27T05:35:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Β-Cyclodextrin Drug Inclusion Complexes to Improve Solubility of Poorly Water Soluble Drug 2018-11-12T10:55:26+00:00 Koushal Dhameja Anjali Chaudhary Shilpa Pahwa <p>Solubility of new chemical entity wasa major concern for formulation. Desired concentration of drugs was achieved through solubility in systemic circulation. A higher doseis required by feebly soluble drugs to reach therapeutic plasma concentration, So to enhance the solubility various methodologies are incorporated in which complexation is explained in detail. Types of complexation along with complexation agents are explained in the review. Various approaches used for making inclusion complexes are elucidated and some methods are also briefed so that can complexation efficiency can be enhanced. The drug should present in aqueous form at the site of absorption to get absorbed. Number of excipients was used to formulate a difficult molecule of a lipophilic drug such as cyclodextrin, carbohydrate, dendrimers and many more so that the solubility can be improved.</p> 2018-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##