Prevention of toluene-induced brain neurodegeneration by atropine and neostigmine

  • Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • Amany Ameen Sleem Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3258-1810
  • Yasser Ashry Khadrawy Department of Medical Physiology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • Fatma A Morsy Department of Pathology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
Keywords: toluene, neurotoxicity, cholinergic stimulation, acetylcholinesterase, atropine, neostigmine

Abstract

We aimed to examine the neuroprotective effect of atropine or neostigmine in a rat model of acute toluene toxicity. Rats received intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of toluene at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Neostigmine (30, 60 or 90 mg/kg, i.p.) or atropine (1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered immediately after toluene injection. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA), nitric oxide, reduced glutathione (GSH) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in brain homogenates. Histopathological study of brain was also done. Results indicated that compared with the vehicle control, toluene caused: 1) increased brain lipid peroxidation; 2) increased nitric oxide; 3) decreased reduced glutathione; 4) inhibition of AChE activity; 5) cortical Lewy bodies, neuronal loss and degenerated Purkinje cells in cerebellum. Treatment with either atropine or neostigmine prevented the increase in brain MDA and nitric oxide and the decrease in reduced glutathione induced by toluene. AChE activity increased by atropine and neostigmine at 60 or 90 mg/kg. Either drug afforded neuronal protection. These effects were dose-dependent. These results suggest that single injection of toluene causes neuronal cell death which involves excessive cholinergic stimulation and oxidative stress and which is amenable to treatment with atropine or neostigmine.

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Author Biography

Amany Ameen Sleem, Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
Published
2020-05-01
How to Cite
Abdel-Salam, O. M., Sleem, A. A., Khadrawy, Y. A., & Morsy, F. A. (2020). Prevention of toluene-induced brain neurodegeneration by atropine and neostigmine. Journal of Basic Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(1), 1-9. Retrieved from http://scigreen.com/index.php/JBPT/article/view/64
Section
Original Research Articles