The etiologic mediator of AIDS is HIV, which belongs to the family of human retroviruses (Retroviridae) and the subfamily of lentiviruses. HIV infection can be transmitted from an infected mother to her foetus through pregnancy, through delivery, or by breast-feeding. Lack of prophylactic antiretroviral therapy to the mother throughout pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to the fetus subsequent to birth, the likelihood of transmission of HIV from mother to infant/fetus ranges from 15 to 25% in developed countries and from 25 to 35% in developing countries. Co-trimoxazole is the drug of choice. An effective well-coordinated multidisciplinary team is required to address the changing needs of infected and affected children and their caregivers. Continuity of care between inpatient and outpatient services, local referring-hospitals and the community needs to be developed.