Nephroprotective activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats
Zea mays L. (Poacae), an annual grass, traditionally used to treat various diseases was evaluated for antioxidative stress and renoprotective potentials against alloxan-induced injuries in diabetic rats. Antioxidative stress and renoprotective activities of husk extract and fractions (187-748 mg/kg) were assessed by determining levels of oxidative stress markers, kidney function tests and histopathology of kidney. Hematological parameters were determined using hematology Analyser. The husk extract and fractions caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in the levels of oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH) in the kidney and MDA level was decreased in the treated diabetic rats. The extract and fractions caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction of elevated serum levels of creatinine, urea and chloride in the diabetic rats. The extract/fractions caused increases in WBC, PCV, monocyte, neutrophil, platelet and eosinophil counts without affecting other parameters. Histology of kidney revealed absence or significant reductions in pathological features in the treated diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction revealed the presence of phytochemical compounds of pharmacological importance. The results showed that the husk extract and fractions of Zea mays has antioxidative and nephroprotective potentials which may be due to the antioxidant activities of their phytochemical constituents.